Notes for Readers

Artists’ Names

Artists are listed by their commonly used names. An artist’s full given name is noted in his/her biography.

Married women artists who worked under their wedded names are so listed, regardless of the date of their painting[s] in the Schwartz Collection.



Diligent efforts have been made to establish the original or artist’s designated title of each painting, based on exhibition records, reviews, and other documentation. In other cases, commonly used or purely descriptive titles are given for paintings whose original titles could not be ascertained. Sources of disputed titles are detailed in object essays.



The creation date for each artwork is provided where known.

“Dated [year]” indicates that the date is inscribed on the work, presumably in the artist’s hand. This date is assumed to be correct, except where otherwise noted.

“Circa [year]” or a date standing alone indicates that although not inscribed on the work the date of creation can reasonably be deduced from outside information—typically an exhibition record or stylistic evidence based on comparison with other, dated works by the artist, as detailed in the accompanying essay.



Canvas dimensions are given in inches, with height preceding width.


Non-personal Names

In most cases names of organizations, exhibition series, publications, and the like conform to historical context. Thus an institution or regular annual exhibition may be referred to by different names in different texts depending on the period discussed.

Notably, the Art Institute of Chicago’s annual Chicago artists’ exhibition is only referred to as the “Chicago and Vicinity” exhibition beginning in 1913, the year the name was changed.

Today’s formal distinction between the Art Institute of Chicago—that is, the museum—and the School of the Art Institute of Chicago did not pertain during the Art Institute’s early decades. Where an artist is said to have enrolled at, attended, or taught at “the Art Institute of Chicago,” the School is implied.

Readers should also note the repetitive use of some institutional names. Notably, the Academy of Fine Arts can refer either to the institution renamed the Art Institute of Chicago in 1882 or to the independent Chicago art school founded in 1902. The Art Students’ League of Chicago should not be confused with the Art Students League, the independent art school in New York.



Much remains to be learned about the artists and artworks profiled here. This online collection catalogue is a work in progress. The M. Christine Schwartz Collection welcomes your corrections and suggestions. We invite you to contact us.